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Muhammed Zahir Shah

Modern day image of the last Shah of Afghanistan.

Muhammed Zahir (16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King (Shah) of Afghanistan from 1933 to 1973. In the game he is available in Afghanistan for several minister spots as well as a military leader.

Minister positions Edit

Zahir's primary position is as the Head of State of Afghanistan. He begins in 1936 as a Fascist idealogue with the Autocratic Charmer personality. Variants of him become available for different governments as the game progresses. In 1939, a Social Conservative version is available with a Benevolent Gentleman personality. Alternatively in 1946, a Paternal Autocrat version is available, continuing his original Autocratic Charmer personality.

Zahir may also fulfill several smaller ministries in the government of Afghanistan. From 1936, he can fill the largely irrelevant Chief of the Navy position, as an Indirect Approach Proponent. From 1939, he can also assume the Chief of the Air Force post, as an Army Aviation Proponent. Finally, from 1941, he becomes a Social Conservative option for Minister of Security as a Man of the People.

Zahir's loyalty is very high as Head of State and medium in his other posts.

Military leadership positions Edit

Zahir is a high ranking officer available for service in all three branches until 1960. He begins the game as a skill 2 lieutenant general/vice admiral, and is promoted to general/admiral in 1939 and field marshal/grand admiral in 1944. In none of these posts does he have any leadership traits.

BackgroundEdit

Zahir Shah was the son of Mohammed Nadir Shah, a military officer under former king Amanullah Khan. Nadir Shah assumed the throne after he had Habibullah Ghazi executed. Mohammed Zahir's father was born in Dehradun, India descending from a Pashtun family from Peshawar, India. Nadir Shah was a descendant of Colonel Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan Telai, the half-brother of Dost Mohammad Khan. His great grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan was responsible for the mediation between Yaqub Khan and the British during the Gandomak Negotiations which is known as the Gandomak Treaty. After the signing of the treaty, Yaqub Khan and Yahya Khan fled to British India.

Zahir Shah was sent to be educated in France at the Pasteur Institute and the University of Montpellier. He spoke fluent Persian, and some French, English and Italian.

His preference of the Persian language gave him credibility with the most important group of the country: the Persian-speaking elite of Kabul.

RuleEdit

On 8 November 1933, he was proclaimed king at the age of nineteen after the assassination of his father, Mohammed Nadir Shah. For the first twenty years he did not effectively rule, ceding power to his paternal uncles. This period fostered a growth in Afghanistan's relations with the international community. In 1934, Afghanistan joined the League of Nations while also receiving a formal recognition from the United States. Throughout the 1930s, agreements on foreign assistance and trade had been reached with many countries, most notably Germany, Italy, and Japan.

In 1964, Zahir Shah promulgated a new constitution. He instituted programs of political and economic modernization, ushering in a democratic legislature and education for women. These reforms put him at odds with the conservative clerics who opposed him.

By the time he returned to Afghanistan in the twenty-first century, his rule was characterized by a lengthy span of peace, but with no significant progress.

Reference Edit

This article contains material from Wikipedia's article, Muhammed_Zahir_Shah, last accessed on 3 December, 2007.

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